Perigos da Soja

 

  • Altos níveis de ácido fítico na soja reduzem a assimilação de cálcio, magnésio, cobre, ferro e zinco. O ácido fítico na soja não é neutralizado por métodos de preparação comuns, tais como imersão, germinação e cozimento longo e lento. Dietas ricas em fitato causaram problemas de crescimento em crianças.
  • Inibidores de tripsina na soja interferem com a digestão de proteínas e podem causar distúrbios pancreáticos. Em testes com animais, a soja contendo inibidores de tripsina causaram atrofia do crescimento.
  • Fitoestrogênios da soja interrompem a função endócrina e têm o potencial de causar infertilidade e de promover câncer de mama em mulheres adultas.
  • Fitoestrogênios da soja são potentes agentes antitireoidianos que causam hipotireoidismo e podem causar câncer da tireoide. Em crianças, o consumo de fórmula de soja tem sido associada a doença autoimune da tireoide.
  • Análogos da vitamina B12 encontrados na soja não são absorvidos e, na verdade, aumentam as necessidades do corpo de vitamina B12 .
  • Alimentos de soja aumentam a necessidade do corpo de vitamina D.
  • Proteínas frágeis são desnaturadas durante o processamento de alta temperatura na produção da proteína isolada de soja e proteína vegetal texturizada.
  • Processamento da proteína de soja resulta na formação de lisinoalanina tóxica e nitrosaminas altamente cancerígenas.
  • Ácido glutâmico livre ou MSG, uma neurotoxina potente, é formado durante o processamento de alimentos de soja e os montantes adicionais são adicionados a muitos alimentos de soja.
  • Os alimentos de soja contém níveis elevados de alumínio, que é tóxico para o sistema nervoso e os rins.
  • Os perigos da soja acima descritos além de mitos e verdades sobre soja, estão disponíveis no “Alerta da soja!” brochura com três dobras para distribuição em massa, editado pela Weston A. Price Foundation, nos EUA.

Estudos mostram efeitos adversos da soja

  1. Estudos mostrando a toxicidade da soja, Banco de Dados de plantas venenosas. USA Food & Drug Administration (7.5M PDF)
  2. Estudos mostram efeitos adversos da soja na dieta, 1939-2008
  3. Estudos que mostram efeitos adversos das isoflavonas, 1950-2010

Fontes:

http://www.westonaprice.org/soy-alert

1998, FDA NCTR Reports: Our results may be interpreted that soy phytoestrogen genistein is a chromosomal mutagen.

www.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/9729267

1999, FDA Scientists Against Soy: NIH NIEHS scientists Dr. Doerge and Dr. Sheehan have for decades consistently proven highly toxic soy-cause of multiple adverse body & brain effects, especially caused to most developmentally fragile fetus, infants, and children.

www.alkalizeforhealth.net/Lsoy2.htm

2001, NIEHS Report: Dietary (soy) genistein produced effects in multiple estrogen-sensitive tissues in male and female mice consistent with estrogenicactivity……within exposure ranges in humans.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11738518

1999 & 2004, Phytoestrogens are compounds found in plant foods (largely soybeans) that exhibit estrogen-like activity, and display both estrogen-like activity and anti-estrogen effects. Interindividual diversity and complexity in dietary phytoestrogen absorption and metabolism make their bioactivity unpredictable.Their actions in specific cells are determined by many factors; levels of estrogen receptor-alpha and -beta, and the diverse cocktail of co-activators and co-repressors present in any given cell type. Overall, it is naïve to assume that exposure to these compounds is always good. Inappropriate or excessive exposure to phytoestrogens may be detrimental to health.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10548876

Soy, Cause of Multiple Cancers

2004, Findings suggest that oxidative DNA damage by (soy) isoflavone metabolites play a role in tumor initiation and that cell proliferation by isoflavones via Estrogen Receptors (ER) to Estrogen response elements (ERE) was largely consistent with cell proliferative activity of isoflavones.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14992594

Leukemia: Soy-Cause of Infant Leukemia

2010, Genistein is a bioflavonoid enriched in soy products. High levels of maternal soy consumption linked to the development of infant leukemia. Genistein induced infant leukemia.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638367

Maternal Diet and infant Leukemia

A Role for DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors caused to fetus in utero: 10 fold increase risk of infant acute myeloid leukemia with increased maternal consumption of DNA topo-2 inhibitor containing foods.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9876473

Soy is in fact an established topoisomerase II inhibitor and in fact an inhibitor of several other essential enzymes

Dietary topoisomerase II-poisons: Contribution of soy products to infant leukemia-DNA topoisomerase are nuclear enzymes inducing transient breaks in the DNA allowing DNA strands to pass through each other. Maternal exposure to low doses of dietary topoismerase II poisons, including genistein may contribute to development of infant leukemia. This study found at:

excli.de/Vol1/hengstleretal02-02.pdf

Timing of phytoestrogen use is important. Recent studies have indicated that soy phytoestrogens could be contributive factors in some forms of breast cancer, penile birth defects, and infantile leukemia. Genistein might increase the risk of leukemia because it inhibits the enzyme topoisomerase which result in double strand DNA breaks which are mutagenic. Genistein may not be safe for women with estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Soy phytoestrogens or isoflavones have been definitely shown to depress thyroid function and to cause infertility in every animal species studies so far. Soy isoflavone can act like estrogen, stimulating development and maintenance of female characteristic or block cells from using cousins of estrogen.

www.genistein.net/cancer.html

2007, Study demonstrates that biologically relevant concentrations of soy genistein flavonoids can induce abnormalities in mixed-linage leukemia.Particularly alarming knowing mother’s metabolism can lead to higher flavonoid concentration on fetal side. Raise public awareness and set guidelines for marketing flavonoid supplements to reduce risk of infant leukemias.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17468513

2011, Isoflavone research revealed adverse effects on reproductive system. This is also the case with tumor-promoting effects on breast tissue. Questions about the effectiveness and safety of isoflavones have to be clarified. There are concerns about the maternal consumption of isoflavones due to the development of leukemia in infants.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21438720

Soy-Cause of Bladder Cancer

USC Study reports soy increases risk of bladder cancer

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12496060

Colon Cancer, Gastric Cancer, & Intestinal Tumorigenesis

2005, Soy increases colon epithelial cell proliferation measures in the sigmoid colon a common location of colon cancer. In the cecum and sigmoid colon the proliferation count increased as the serum (soy) genistein concentration increased. Cells that multiply indiscriminately can encourage the cause of colon cancer.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16155276

2007, Maternal consumption to soy protein isolates increased the percentage of animals bearing multiple colon tumors. IGF-1 was elevated in soy protein isolate during pregnancy and casein-fed group thereafter. Elevated levels of insulin or IGF-1 are associated with increased colorectal cancer risk in humans and rodents.In summary, dietary exposure to a soy protein-based diet during pregnancy followed by the switch to casein at delivery increased colon tumor multiplicity (a measure of tumor promotion) in the male progeny as later adults. The present results raise the possibility that colon cancer, which conventionally is considered to be a cancer of the elderly, may be influenced by dietary/metabolic perturbations or programming occurring during development.

joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/195/1/79.full

2007, Soy isoflavone genisten can affect cell metabolism by specifically inhibiting protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and/or interacting with the estrogen receptors (ERs). Synthesis of GAGs/PGs (glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans by colon cancer cell line HT-29 cells in the presence of genistein was dependent on their type and localization which implies the active participation of the PTK interaction with ERs, which was further supported by the observed growth stimulation at low concentrations of genistein.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18225578

2012, Soy food which is rich in isoflavones are structurally similar to 17 B-estradiol. We found an increasing trend in risk of gastric cancer associated with higher isoflavone intake among female hormone drug users.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170362

2008, ….genistein in the diet enhanced intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice. This study demonstrates that although genistein can enhance EGCG (antioxidant found in teas and many supplements) bioavailabilty this combination enhances intestinal tumorigenesis in male mice.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18684728

2007, Several adverse effects of soy supplementation in female rats were observed. 5 of 21 rats fed soy supplement died before the end of the experiment while all animals on the control diet survived. Density of normal crypts lining the colonic mucosa was reduced, indicating gastrointestinal damage. Uterine weights, serum estradiol and serum isoflavone levels were increased in soy-supplemented diets. These adverse effects of soy isoflavones need further examination in target population of consumption of soy supplements.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17157426

Intestinal Damage

A high dose of soy genistein may potentially compromise intestinal growth. Study found at:

jn.nutrition.org/content/134/6/1303

Soy-Cause of Pancreatic Cancer

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1897396

Pancreatic Cancer: FDA Study: hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Antinutritional components inhibit growth goitrogens, phytoestrogens, and saponins, lysinoalanine damage to kidneys allergenic response in humans.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8142044

Pancreatic Cancer: Neoplastic nodules including carcinomas. Any possible adverse effects may result from phytic acid and saponins in soybeans.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7884560

Pancreatic Cancer: USDA Study Confirms Soy-Cause of proliferative pancreatic lesions

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2745924

1986, Animal studies have indicated a link between pancreatic cancer and high fat and/or high protein diets as well as raw soybean consumption. Nitrosamines may also be related to pancreatic cancer. (Soy contains nitrosamines).

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3775080

Toxic Factors In Edible Legumes

Best known of the anti-nutritional factors causing nutritional stress due to toxic components found in soybeans is trypsin inhibitors that inhibit growth. Recent evidence implicates pancreatic hypertrophyas one of the main physiologic responses to trypsin inhibitors. Many legumes such as soy contain hemagglutinins also inhibit growth. Other toxic components in soybeans include goiterogenic factors, cyanogenetic glucosides, saponins and alkaloids.

http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/11/4/281

Maternal Consumption of Soy Is Related to Breast Cancer in Offspring

Maternal soy genistein exposure mimics the effects of estrogen on mammary gland development in female mouse offspring.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9538161

Maternal exposure to genistein can increase mammary tumorigenesis in offspring, mimicking the effects of in utero estrogenic exposure…increasing susceptibility.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10425307

Maternal exposure increases carcinogenic induced mammary tumors in female rat offspring

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10425307

Perinatal exposure on induced mammary carcinoma….5mg genistein in utero did increase number of mammary cancer lesions…perinatal genistein is an endocrine disruptor and increases multiplicity of induced mammary carcinoma in rats

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10737721

Soy-Cause Of Breast Cancer in Women and/or Men

2009, Environmental estrogens affect breast development in male rats: NIEHS study; Clearest evidence to date: Abnormalities which could have the potential to become cancerous developed in the mammary gland tissue of male rats that were exposed to either the soy-based phytoestrogens genistein or ethinyl estradiol- an estrogen used in birth control pills. Findings support a growing concern that exposure to low levels of estrogen….might increase the risk of breast cancer. Genistein and ethinyl estradiol exposure in multigenerational and chronic studies induce similar proliferative lesions in mammary gland.

www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/newscience/environmental-estrogens-affect-breast-development-in-male-rats

Similar across all generations exposed to genistein…..predominant tubuloalveolar growth in females and lobuloalveolar in males. Hyperplasia in male rats was similar induced by genistein or ethinyl estradiol…substantiate previous reports that mammary gland hyperplasia in the male rat is most sensitive markers for estrogenic endocrine disruption.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19383540

Journal National Cancer Institute: Chemical structure of isoflavones is similar to that of estrogens, and isoflavones bind to both estrogen receptors ERa and ERb and exert estrogen-like effects. The main soybean isoflavone genistin may stimulate the growth of estrogen sensitive tumors. Research recommendation is that the impact of isoflavones on breast tissue needs to be evaluated at the cellular level in women at high risk for breast cancer.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16985246

2008, Low concentrations of the soy phytoestrogen genistein induce Proteinase Inhibitor 9 and block killing of breast cancer cells by immune cells. A significant population consumes levels of genistein in soy products that may be high enough to induce PI-9, perhaps potentiating the survival of some preexisting breast cancer by enabling them to evade immunosurveillance.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2584580

2004, DNA damage by isoflavone metabolites plays a role in tumor initiation and that cell proliferation by isoflavones via estrogen receptors induces tumor promotion and or progression, resulting in cancer of estrogen-sensitive organs.

www.ncib.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14992594

Soy-Causes Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells

Nurses should become more knowledgeable about soy foods for women at high risk, or with history of breast cancer should avoid high intake of soy supplements.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19726393

2004, An E-screen assay revealed that genistein and daidzein enhanced proliferation of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14992594

2004, Genistein, at 1microM, stimulated the growth of MCF-7 cells and insulin-like growth Factor-I receptor pathway is involved in the proliferative effect of low-dose genistein in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15126563

Estrogenic properties of soy isoflavones, genistein can stimulate growth of breast cancer.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14578162

2010, Genistein is a major isoflavone with known hormonal and tyrosine kinase-modulating activities. Genistein has been shown to promote the growth of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells are particularly susceptible to the growth-promoting effects of genistein across a wide range of doses.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20067990

Soy Blocks Anti-Estrogen Breast Cancer Drugs

2001, Soy phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein may stimulate existing breast tumor growth and antagonize the effects of tamoxifen. Women with current or past breast cancer should be aware of the risk of potential tumor growth when taking soy products.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11573864

Soy interrupts the actions of pharmaceutical drugs in treatment for breast cancer.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17640169

2008, Dietary genistein can negate the inhibitory effects of tamoxifen on estrogen-stimulated growth of MCF- 7 breast cancer cells.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18815740

Soy-Cause of Uterine Cancer– Seen in mice injected with Genistein as Soy Estrogen As Newborns

www.niehs.nih.gov/news/newsroom/releases/news-archive/2001/may31/index.cfm

Uterine Cancer: NIEHS: At 18 months, uterine adenocarcinoma was 35% for genistein and 31% for DES…suggest genistein is carcinogenic if exposure occurs during critical periods of differentiation. Soy based infant formulas…should be closely examined in children.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11389053

Soy causes cancer and progression in estrogen sensitive organs….uterus and vulva

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmend/14992594

Adverse effects on Uterus…etc. Abnormal pathology in 3 women…all 3 improved after withdrawal of soy. Additional information on phytoestrogen is necessary to ascertain safety.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18396257


Soy-Cause of Thymus Masses

Soy exposure during pregnancy and lactation causes long-lasting adverse effects into adulthood.
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2039948/

Soy Increases Risk of Diabetes:

2007, Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were decreased by soy protein isolates. (Low levels of insulin may cause of diabetes type 1. Leptin is a hormone involved in regulating appetite, body weight, fat and glucose activity. The absence of leptin leads to uncontrolled food intake and resulting obesity).

joe.endocrinology-journals.org/content/195/1/79.full

2005, Findings demonstrate that genistein directly acts on pancreatic B-cells, leading to activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade to exert an insulinotropic effect, providing a novel role of soy isoflavones in the regulation of insulin secretion.2004, Logistic regression analyses showed soy milk formula consumption at 4-6 and 7-12 months of age was associated with a twofold higher risk of type 1 Diabetes.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15331209

2011, Indeed, higher soy food intake was associated with a weakly elevated diabetes risk across ethnic groups among Caucasian, Japanese American, and Native Hawaiian men and women.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20924394

2006 Soy Genistein acutely stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells through cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. Evidence that genistein increases rapid glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in both insulin-secreting cell lines and mouse pancreatic islets. Genistein elicited a significant effect at concentration as low as 10 nmol/l. Insulinotropinic effects of genistein is primarily mediated through protein kinase A.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567527

2008, Soy isoflavones may influence insulin action by means of their well-known receptor-mediated estrogenic activity. Isoflavones also bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors that are strongly associated with insulin action.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1855850

2007, Results support the hypothesis that diabetes may have a role in the development of breast cancer, influencing risk via both sex hormone and insulin pathways. Our results also show that the diabetes-breast cancer association we observed only in low/intermediate soy consumers.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17440036

2004, Soyfood consumption and development of glycosuria, (glucose in the urine) an important indicator of diabetes.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15042129

Soy-Cause of Severe and Irreversible Adverse Brain Effects

2008, Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert hormone-like activity and exposure to these compounds may induce both short- and long-term deleterious effects. The EDCs examined included estradiol, androgen active compounds, soy phytoestrogens, and atrazine. Effects on behavior and hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems were examined. All EDCs impaired reproduction. Several hypothalamic neural systems proved to be EDC responsive, including arginine vasotocin, catecholamines, and gonadotropin releasing hormone system.Exposure to EDCs during embryonic development has consequences beyond impaired function of the reproductive axis. Behavioral alterations reveal both direct and indirect effects of exposure to EDC.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006066

Soy isoflavones provide a useful model to investigate the actions of endocrine disruptors. Isoflavonoids act in vivo through both ERalpha and ERbeta. Small physiologically relevant exposure levels can alter estrogen dependent gene expression in the brain and affect complex behavior in wide range of species.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15720476

FDA Study: “FDA Scientists Against Soy” NIH scientists Drs. Doerge and Sheehanreport, “Thus during pregnancy in humans, (soy) isoflavones per se could be a risk factor for abnormal brain and reproductive tract development. Our conclusions are that no dose is without risk; the extent of risk is simply a function of dose. ….the public will be put at potential risk from soy isoflavones in soy protein, isolatewithout adequate warnings and information.”

www.alkalizeforhealth.net/Lsoy2.htm

2001 Studies show that soybean-based formulas contain large quantities of phytoestrogens, particularly isoflavones. Because of experimental data suggesting possible deleterious effects of phytoestrogens on neuroendocrine maturation, thereduction of soy content in formulas must be considered.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11760676

Soy phytoestrogens influence estradiol estrogenic induced mechanism results inmodified brain functions:

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11602649

2004, Major source of endocrine disrupting substances soy derived isoflavones are most abundant and most studied are known endocrine disruptors. Isoflavones exert estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties. Soy daidzein can be metabolized to the potent equol. Equol has important ability to bind testosterone and in turn inhibits the action of androgen. Specific influence of dietary soy phytoestrogens on consumptive, learning and memory and anxiety-related behaviors is identified.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15454683

Soya isoflavone content of rat diet can increase anxiety and stress hormone release in the male rat. Major changes in behavioral anxiety and stress hormones

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12618915

2005, Soy isoflavonoids provide a useful model to investigate the actions of endocrine disruptors. Isoflavonoids act in vivo through both ERalpha and ERbeta.Their neurobehavioural actions are largely anti-estrogenic. Small physiologically relevant exposure levels of soy isoflavonoids can alter estrogen-dependent gene expression in the brain and affect complex behavior in a wide range of species.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15720476

Evidence for soy genistein cytotoxicity in rat brain

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15147835

Small doses of soy genistein or daidzein can alter estrogen-dependent gene expression in brain and complex behavior.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11836071

2004, Results indicate that long-term consumption of a diet rich in soy isoflavones can have marked influences on patterns of increased aggressive behavior and decreased social behavior.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15053944

2010- Endocrine disruptors, chemicals that disturb the actions of endogenous hormone, have been implicated in birth defects associated with hormone-dependent development. Phytoestrogens are a class of endocrine disruptors found in plants. ….soy phytoestrogens. Effects of genistein on reproductive development and spatial learning required exposure throughout the pre-and postnatal periods.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053350

Placental transfer of soy genistein to levels similar to those in maternal brain,crosses rat placenta and can reach fetal brain from maternal …relevant to those observed in humans

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297868

Soy Damages Multiple Brain Neuro-Transmitter Systems

2008, Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert hormone-like activity and exposure to these compounds may induce both short- and long-term deleterious effects. The EDCs examined included estradiol, androgen active compounds, soy phytoestrogens, and atrazine. Effects on behavior and hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems were examined. All EDCs impaired reproduction. Several hypothalamic neural systems proved to be EDC responsive, including arginine vasotocin, catecholamines, and gonadotropin releasing hormone system.Exposure to EDCs during embryonic development has consequences beyond impaired function of the reproductive axis. Behavioral alterations reveal both direct and indirect effects of exposure to EDC.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006066

VASOPRESSIN
Increase vasopression; was significantly elevated in the 1250ppm genistein group consistent with known actions of estradiol and previous study the estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as genistein increase sodium preference

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12660364

Vasopressin: Soy Isoflavones form one of the main classes of phytoestrogens and exert estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects on the central nervous system. Effects are not limited to reproductive behavior, but include effects on learning and anxiety and actions on the hypothalmic-pituitary axis. The group fed soy isoflavones 150 microg/g diet spent significantly less time in active social interaction, displayed anxiogenic effects, and had significantly elevated stress-induced corticosterone concentrations. Stress-induced plasma vasopressin concentrations were also significantly elevated. Major changes in behavioral measures of anxiety and in stress hormones can result from the soy isoflavone.These changes are as striking as those seen following drug administration.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12618915

OXYTOCIN
2011, Phyotestrogens have widespread effects in the adult human brain which have been previously reviewed in detail elsewhere. Genistein stimulates ER (estrogen receptor) -beta mRNA expression in the PVN, (paraventricular nucleus), an effect opposite to that of 17b estradiol. PVN is primary site of oxytocin production. ER-alpha is required for the up-regulation of oxytocin. Consumption of prepared phytoestrogen supplement attenuated estrogen-dependent upregulation of oxytocin in the rat ventromedial nucleus.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074428/

Soy Inhibits GABA, A Chief Inhibitory Brain Neurotransmitter

2007, Neurotoxic Effects of soy genistein and daidzein could be due to their inhibition of the GABA (A) receptor resulting in further enhancement of excitation by glutamate and leading to cellular damage. (GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric Acid. Inhibition of GABA can cause: anxiety disorders, panic attacks, seizure disorders, headaches, Parkinsen’s Cognitive impairment, depression, bipolar, infertility, lowers insulin levels).

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Genistein

2007, Soy isoflavones possess estrogen-like activity. Specifically genistein and daidzein are toxic to primary neuronal culture at high concentrations, indicating a significant cellular damage. Both genistein and daidzein increases intracellular calcium level (CA2)i, significantly. The toxic effect of soy genistein and daidzein could be due to their inhibition of the GABA(A) receptor resulting in further enhancement of excitation by glutamate and leading to cellular damage.

http://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245525

2007, It is surprising that contrary to estrogen, isoflavones, specifically soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein are toxic to primary neuronal culture at high concentrations. Toxic effect of genistein and daidzein could be due to their inhibition of the GAMA(A) receptor resulting in further enhancement of excitation by glutamate and leading to cellular damage.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17245525

DOPAMINE

2002, Small doses of soy genistein or daidzein can alter estrogen-dependent gene expression in brain and complex behavior

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11836071

Soy genistein significantly potentiated dopamine release in males. Genistein exposure may act similarly to estradiol (potent estrogen) in augmenting dopamine release.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11836070

ZINC DEFICIENCY

Levels of estradiol of rats receiving phytoestrogens were significantly higher than control group. In abnormal levels estradiol is a dangerously potent endogenous estrogen. Soy treated group showed statistically significant decreased concentrations of zinc in blood serum. Study evidence links low zinc levels to brain disorders including autism.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21167684

Soy Inhibits Essential Enzyme Tyrosine Kinases Related To Brain Dysfunction

1991, Long-term potentiation (related to learning and long-term memory) in the hippocampus is blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as genistein. Tyrosine kinases participate in a kinase network with serine and threonine kinases.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16562712

SEROTONIN

Brain cell changes are involved in the interplay between estrogen and serotonin’s effects on mood and cognition. Serotonin functions are implicated in depression, anxiety disorders, and some aspects of schizophrenia.

2003, Soy and social stress affect serotonin neurotransmission in primates.Prescribed estrogens and soy phytoestrogen increased serotonin reuptake transporter that was accompanied by increased serotonin synthesis and neuronal firing.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12746737

Soy Increases Levels of BDNF- A family of proteins that induce the development, survival, and function of neurons. High levels contribute to seizures, epilepsy, and hyperalgesia or increase sensitivity to pain.

1999, Both estradiol and soy phytoestrogens significantly increased the mRNA levels of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) compared to controls in the frontal cortex of female rats.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10081916

Soy-induced neuro-degeneration. A positive correlation between tofu consumption and brain atrophy in men. Has been shown that the soy phytoestrogen genistein inhibits neuroprotetcive functions in cell cultures, recent in-vivo findings strengthen the case for possible soy –induced neurodegeneration.Genistein has been shown to suppress both DNA synthesis and the effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.Seems reasonable that some individuals may chose to avoid soy until proven safe …avoidance of soy also seems reasonable and should not be discouraged as alarmist.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15142435

Calbinin D28k

Endocrine disurptors many also alter brain development by mimicry or modulation of endogenous hormone systems. Genistein treated male rats increased volume of the calbindin D28k-labeled sexually dimorphic hypothalamus.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1546915

TOFU

2003- Soy-induced neurodegeneration. A positive correlation between tofu consumption and brain atrophy in men. Has been shown that the soy phytoestrogen genistein inhibits neuroprotetive functions in cell cultures, recent in-vivo findings strengthen the case for possible soy –induced neurodegeneration.Genistein has been shown to suppress both DNA synthesis and the effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.Seems reasonable that some individuals may chose to avoid soy until proven safe…avoidance of soy also seems reasonable and should not be discouraged as alarmist.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15142435

2008 High tofu intake is associated with worse memory in elderly Indonesian men and women. Honolulu study also reported increased risk for cognitive impairmentand other dementia markers with high tofu (soybean curd) intake.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18583909

Soy Hormone Disruptors Masculinize the Female Brain, and Feminize The Male Brain

Soy De-masculinized male, de-feminized females…(Soy) Genistein during critical period could disrupt brain differentiation.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17109964

Neonatal (soy) genistein or BPA alters sexual differentiation de-masculinizing males and de-feminizing females… Phytoestrogenic genistein is a endocrine active compounds (EAC). Acute exposure to EAC alter AVPV Development

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16427766

Soy De-feminizes female brain

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13129486

1996. Reversal of sex roles in genetic female mice by disruption of estrogen receptor gene. Deficiency of normal estrogen receptor gene function led to behavioral change in female mice, aggression was increased. Disruption of ER gene led to a pattern of hormonal and neural changes which caused female to lose their normal female-typical behavior and to behave more like males.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8990081

De-feminize female mice: 2010, Females exposed to (soy)daidzein showed significantly less ERalpha expression in bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdale. Findings show that maternal exposure to daidzein has a masculinization effect on memory and social behavior, suggesting a potential role of ER alpha distribution in the brains….

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20505512

2005, De-masculinize male mice: John Hopkins School of Medicine: Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals adversely affects reproductive development and behavior in males. Aggressive behaviors were decreased whereas defensive behaviors were increased in males that received the low-dose (soy) genistein diet. Exposure to genistein during critical periods of sex differentiation results in concurrent and persistent de-masculinization in male mice. Given the popularity of soy infant formulas the influence isoflavone exposure on reproductive and behavioral health in boys and men should be considered.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15708785

2003 study, Johns Hopkins, AB Wisniewski et al, Perinatal (soy) genistein exposure results in transient and lasting alterations in masculinization of the reproductive system. Exposure to genistein during gestation and lactation de-masculinizes the reproductive system in rats.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12629420

2011 study; A Lehraiki et al. It is well known that genistein, an isoflavone found in soybeans and soy products, mimics the actions of estrogens …. Genistein inhibits testosterone secretion by fetal Leydig cells during early fetal development within the “masculinization programming window.” These results suggest that fetal exposure to phytoestrogens can affect the development and function of the male reproductive system.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21624456

1993- The results confirm that low doses of genistein have non-androgenizing,pituitary-sensitizing effects while higher doses of genistein mimc the more typical effects of estrogens….defining the reproductive consequences of environmental estrogen exposure during critical periods of central nervous system development.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8448414

Soy isoflavones can act like estrogen, stimulating development and maintenance of female characteristics, or block cells from using cousins of estrogen.

www.genistein.net/cancer.html

2007, Genistein is a phytoestrogen, abundant in soybeans that can bind estrogen receptors and sex hormone binding proteins, exerting both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Results demonstrate that genistein acts similarly to estradiol, has an organizational effect on vasotocin system and copulatory behavior. In this avian (quail) model embryonic exposure to phytoestrogens may have life-long effects on sexual differentiation of brain structures and behaviors.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17274996

Maternal Diet Transfers Soy Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors to Fetus

2011, Isoflavone research revealed adverse effects on reproductive system. This is also the case with tumor-promoting effects on breast tissue. Questions about the effectiveness and safety of isoflavones have to be clarified. There are concerns about the maternal consumption of isoflavones due to the development of leukemia in infants.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21438720

Placental transfer of genistein to levels similar to those in maternal brain. Crosses rat placenta and can reach fetal brain from maternal …relevant to those observed in humans

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297868

2002, Early exposure to genistein exerts long-lasting effects on the endocrine and immune systems. Data illustrate that exposure to soy genistein during pregnancy and lactation exerts long-lasting effects on the endocrine and immune systems in adulthood.

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12520091

Dr. Roberto Franco do Amaral Neto

Dr. Roberto Franco do Amaral Neto

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2 respostas

  1. Gostaria de deixar claro aqui que essas fontes ao final deste documento disponibilizado pelo sr. Dr. Roberto Franco do Amaral Neto, não são confiáveis. O sr. é formado em medicina e não deve ter aprendido na Academia que blogspot não é fonte. Outra coisa é a questão de, também na fonte, citar um site que condena práticas vegetarianas a todo o custo. A quem interessar, no site da Fundação Weston A. Price, que tem como visão e missão a disseminação de alimentação saudável, eles tem uma sessão de “Tour para Vegetarianos”. Lá eles disponibilizam cerca de 20 artigos para “Ajudar” pessoas que optaram por essa dieta. NENHUM desses artigos incentivam a continuidade desta forma de alimentação, bem como praticam terrorismo médico com casos talvez isolados ou fictícios. O meu sentimento é que o senhor não tem o objetivo de informar e sim de disseminar informações fantasiosas e factóides lobistas.

    Espero que este comentário seja aceito pela moderação e respondido com fundamentos científicos imparciais e fontes confiáveis. Um abraço!

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